AAPB Virtual Posters
Cognitive Processing Therapy and Biofeedback Training: A treatment pilot study
Ann A. Stalcup M.S. and Valerie Perez M.A. Mentor: Dr. Heather Ingram Psy.D., BCB, BCN
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Treatment addressed brain activity readings, long history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Researchers examine the potential benefits of adding a Neurofeedback and Biofeedback training to Cognitive Processing Therapy. Researchers found improvements on posttraumatic stress disorder and other related psychological symptoms in women who had experienced sexual abuse. Participant symptomatology was tracked using the Patient Health Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Checklist for DSM-5 over the course of 12 sessions. Symptoms were significantly reduced by the end of the 12-week therapy with the most improvement showed by the fifth session. Researchers developed a PTSD treatment protocol where Biofeedback, Neurofeedback, and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy are utilized to treat clients at InMindOut Emotional Wellness Center, LLC.
AAQ-II Measure of Individuals’ Avoidance Levels Association with Physiological Responses during Self-Critical and Self-Compassionate Writing Tasks
Katelyn Jackman, Mikel Cressman, Kimberly Parsell, Samira Ghalkhani, Derek Bartlett, & Patrick Steffen
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Individuals characterized as avoidant may experience lower than average heart rate variance (HRV) when facing stressful stimuli. Past research has found a significant difference in HRV for individuals high in avoidance. The purpose of this study is to examine whether levels of avoidance measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire 2nd Edition (AAQ-II) may predict an individual's HRV. Data was collected via administration of the AAQ-II to undergraduate students at Brigham Young University prior to a lab visit. At the lab visit, participants were then randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (CFT Soothing Rhythm Breathing, Biofeedback, or watching a Nature Video). After participants engaged in their assigned breathing intervention, they wrote self-critically for 5 minutes, then wrote self-compassionately for 5 minutes. We hypothesized that the participants ranked as avoidant by the AAQ-II would have comparably higher HRV at baseline, lower HRV during the self-critical writing exercise, and would show poor HRV recovery after the exercise. However, we found no significant data indicating a difference in HRV for participants with higher scores of avoidance. Further analysis will examine the extremity of avoidant scores in these participants, the effect of the breathing treatment, and other possible confounds.
Event-related Potential Study of Visual Oddball Test in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, ADHD, Comorbid Autism and ADHD, and Neurotypical Children
Estate M. Sokhadze, PhD, BCN, Lonnie Sears, PhD, Allan Tasman, MD, Desmond Kelly, MD, and Manuel F. Casanova, MD
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD are two of the most common childhood neurodevelopmental disorders. DSM-5 does not preclude the concurrent diagnosis of ADHD and ASD (ASD+ADHD). This study aimed to better understand the distinctions and similarities in manifestations of executive deficits among these conditions. We used analysis of reaction time (RT)/accuracy and event-related potentials (ERP) during performance on a visual oddball task with illusory figures. Participants were age-matched children (N=18 per group) with ASD, ADHD, comorbid ASD + ADHD diagnosis and controls (CNT). Both ASD and ASD+ADHD groups committed more errors. Post-error RT in ASD and ASD+ADHD groups manifested as a post-error response speeding rather than the corrective RT slowing typical of the controls. The ASD and ASD+ADHD group also demonstrated an attenuated error-related negativity (ERN) as compared to ADHD and controls. The fronto-central N100 was enhanced and less differentiated in response to target and non-target figures in ASD and ASD+ADHD groups. This comparative ERP study confirmed the utility of using electrocortical responses to elucidate differences between ASD and ADHD and their impact in dual ASD+ADHD diagnosis. This information helps define the extent of overlap among these comorbidities both in terms of symptom expression as well as underlying neuropathology.
The Influence of Depression, Anxiety and Stress on Heart Rate Variability during Self Critical and Self Compassionate Writing
Derek Bartlett, Colter Clayton
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No statistically significant differences were found in measures of HRV in a comparison of individuals with clinically elevated levels of depression, anxiety, and stress to healthy participants during a self-critical and self-compassionate writing exercise.
The Neurophysiology of Giftedness, a Literature Review
Madeline Stein, MA
This poster presents a literature review of the neurophysiological underpinnings associated with giftedness. Giftedness is defined as a set of traits: rapid information processing, the ability to hold a wide range of knowledge, the ability to make inter-subject connections with ease, extreme curiosity and desire to learn, superior memory, and cognitive control (Geake, 2007). One limitation of this presentation is that giftedness is a broad term. Future investigators may benefit from specifying their searches to mathematical, verbal, emotional, etc. gifted categorizations.
Prefrontal Neurofeedback Training Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) with Comorbid Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Estate (Tato) Sokhadze, PhD, Manuel F. Casanova, MD, & Desmond P. Kelly, MD
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Neurofeedback (NFB) is recognized as one of the most established neurotherapy methods in ADHD and is considered as the potentially effective methods for EEG self-regulation in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study addressed to a need for identification of reliable predictors of successful outcomes in the NFB course in children with dual diagnosis (ASD and ADHD). Some EEG, cardiorespiratory and electrodermal indices are candidate predictors of neurofeedback training outcomes and may serve as potential moderators. We proposed that 24 sessions of prefrontal neurofeedback training in treatment responders will be accompanied by intended changes in targeted EEG bands and ratios of individuals bands (e.g., theta/beta ratio), as well as by changes in electrodermal and cardiorespiratory indices. Outcome measures were based on EEG, ECG, pneumogram and skin conductance indices and parental behavioral ratings. The protocol used a training for wide band EEG amplitude suppression with concurrent upregulation of the 40 Hz-centered gamma. Psychophysiological measures such as SCL, respiration and HRV represent useful markers of attention and emotional engagement of children with ASD and ADHD during neurofeedback and can be used as predictors of successful performance during sessions and behavioral outcome of the intervention.
The Effects of Casual Videogames on Symptoms of Depression and Alpha Coherence
Lauren Bethune Scroggs, Amelia D. Saul, and Matthew T. Fish
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The purpose of this study was to test the influence of a regimen of prescribed videogame play on an individual’s alpha activity and depressive symptoms. The study included 59 participants with the experimental group playing 30 minutes of casual video games 3 times a week for 30 minutes for one month. We found a significant interaction between the intervention and time on depressive symptoms. However, we found no significant interaction between the intervention and time on alpha coherence. This underscores the importance of doing enjoyable activities such as video games to help mitigate symptoms of depression.
Effects of Mindfulness and Biofeedback on Executive Function: A balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity
Colter K. Clayton, Mikel Cressman, Amanda Brandaris, Rachel Marie Butler, John Bills, Aubrey Jooyeon Jun & Patrick Steffen
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Increased parasympathetic activation is related to increases in attention and executive function, while higher levels of sympathetic function are predictive of distress and poor performance. Mindfulness and heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback are associated with increased attention and executive functioning; however these interventions are intended to balance sympathetic and parasympathetic function rather than promote parasympathetic activation. Stress management research has been associated with increasing parasympathetic function, measured by high frequency heart rate variability (HF – HRV), as predictive of increased relaxation, enhanced attention, and enhanced executive function. This study examined how the sympathetic and parasympathetic balance, measured by physiological changes in HRV, ECG, and blood pressure, functioned as a predictor of attention and executive function compared to only parasympathetic function as a predictor. This study also explored whether the effects of an HRV intervention such as mindfulness or biofeedback are mediated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic balance, rather than parasympathetic function alone. Adult participants (n=92, female=69) took part in three weekly visits.
7-Week Mindfulness and Biofeedback Training Improved Self-reported Symptoms of Anxiety, Stress, Insomnia, Perfectionism, Depression, Mindfulness, Dysfunctional Breathing, and Somatic Dysfunction
Isaias Rodrigues, ND; Jessica Warbrick, MSc; Delilah Simon; My Tang, ND; Emily Takeuchi-Miller, ND; Maya Roth, ND
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The purpose of our presentation is to summarize outcomes of a 7-week mindfulness and biofeedback protocol used to treat thirteen participants for adjunctive care of psychosocial stress. Participants were asked to fill out validated symptom questionnaires at the start and completion of their 7 weekly training sessions and were given instructions for 20-minutes twice daily home-practice. The training protocol consisted of seven 1-hour sessions. Our presentation concluded that our protocol was successfully utilized to help participants generate awareness, and modify and generalize their stress response, as well as improve symptoms of anxiety, stress, insomnia, perfectionism, depression, mindfulness, dysfunctional breathing, and somatic dysfunction.
Use of Casual Videogames to Reduce Depression Symptoms and HRV
Amelia D. Saul, Lauren Bethune Scroggs, and Matthew T. Fish
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The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of casual videogames (CVG) on HRV and depressive symptoms. There were 59 participants in total with participants in the CVG group required to play CVGs for three 30-minute sessions per week for one month. HRV data and the patient health questionnaire nine (PHQ-9) was collected. The effects of CVGs on depression are significant, indicating a reduction in depressive symptoms, as evidenced by a decrease in PHQ-9 scores from pre- to post-intervention. Although there was a significant interaction for depression overtime, there was not a significant interaction between the intervention and time for SDNN. However, SDNN significantly decreased from Time 1 to Time 2. This study highlights the importance of taking time to do fun activities, such as playing CVGs, as these activities may help to reduce symptoms of depression.
Comparison Study: Pediatric FGID Pre-Post HRV Biofeedback Measures
Monica Ortiz M.A., Francesca Tencza M.A.
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Estimates suggest that there is a high prevalence of pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), including but not limited to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Gastrointestinal (GI) Rumination Syndrome. FGID symptoms—including recurring pain, diarrhea, nausea, and constipation—can be especially disruptive to life domains central for youth, such as social activities and academic performance, due to the serious and sometimes unpredictable discomforts associated with the disorders. Researchers have established that children and adolescents with an FGID present with compromised heart rate variability (HRV) and vagal tone values, in comparison to their non-FGID counterparts. Based on a compilation of individual cases, the current study compares pre and post HRV presentations in youth treated with HRV biofeedback, following an FGID diagnosis. The study provides information regarding the efficacy of HRV biofeedback as a means to increase HRV and strengthen vagal tone in children and adolescents with an FGID.
Mindfulness and HRV Biofeedback: Potential as a treatment for social media/smartphone addiction
Cayley Chirumbolo, Sarah Ellis, Kaylyn Gatto, Katarina Meister, Mann Semby, ND, Delilah Simon, Jessica Warbrick, Emily Takeuchi-Miller, ND, Maya Roth, ND
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With about 3 billion people worldwide using smartphones, social scientists are concerned about anxiety, depression, disruptions at work & family and decrease in inter-personal skills. A form of “internet addiction” called Internet Gaming Disorder is now included in ICD-11 and DSM-5. Social media addiction or smartphone use disorder (SUD) is associated with loneliness, decreased emotional and thought regulation, social withdrawal, escapism from real life into an online world and increased correlation between time spent online and BMI. The purpose of this poster abstract is to review published literature to answer the question whether mindfulness and breath/HRV biofeedback can play a role in treating SUD? Our research question was prompted by increased general awareness of social media addiction as a pressing issue in today’s world and studies reporting that HRV reduces during activities such as internet gaming addiction.
Posture Awareness Training
John Chetwynd, BA, Lauren A. Mason, BA, Monica Almendras, Erik Peper, PhD, Richard Harvey, PhD
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A collapsed posture is associated with lower subjective energy, negative self-talk, and physical pain including neck and shoulder tension. In contrast, an upright position is associated with greater confidence, energy, and reductions in pain. While a change in posture is a simple and economical solution to alter one’s own physiology, awareness of posture remains a challenge. Posture feedback appears to be a useful strategy as it provides the individual with cues when they begin to slouch. We investigated a wearable device (UpRight Go) that attaches along the spine and connects to a smartphone via Bluetooth. We also investigated use of the UpRight DeskTop app that connects to the computer camera. The slouching feedback helps an individual to identify behaviors, thoughts, or self-talk when they slouch. Participants (n=30) using the UpRight Go showed greater posture awareness and decreased time spent in a slouched posture over a three week period. Similar results were observed in the pilot study using the UpRight Desktop App. Posture mindfulness helped individuals to gain posture awareness and increase energy and confidence while reducing shoulder and neck tension.
7-Week Mindfulness and Biofeedback Training improves symptoms of Anxiety and Heart Palpitations in 2 Case Reports
My Tang, ND; Stephanie Poiani, ND; Maya Roth, ND
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As subsets of mind-body therapies, biofeedback and mindfulness practices draw upon the direct causal relationship between psycho-social and physiological processes. The focused attention and open monitoring underlying the practice of mindfulness are thought to reduce emotional reactivity, while the positive reinforcement and stress management underlying biofeedback provide skills in addressing arising symptoms. Palpitations are an unpleasant awareness of the forceful, rapid, or irregular beating of the heart. In the absence of cardiac conditions, palpitations are often caused by medical conditions including endocrine and metabolic abnormalities, psychiatric disorders, medication effects, and drug or other substance use effects (Goyal 2020). The purpose of this case series is to report on two patients who were successfully treated on Bastyr University Clinic Mind-Body shift for anxiety and associated non-cardiac palpitations.
Better Student Health through Biofeedback Practices and Stress Education
Olivea Flickinger-Renzi, BA, Christian Martinez, Karina Urista, Lena Stampfli, BA, Lisa Wolski, BS, Erik Peper, PhD, BCB, Richard Harvey, PhD
Stress challenges modern college students, which may lead to unhealthy lifestyle habits that contribute to the development and increase in psychological and physical distress. Depression and anxiety symptoms have doubled on college campuses compared to a decade ago. This project reports 1) current college stress symptom prevalence and, 2) the beneficial effects of a stress management program. Symptom Survey Almost all (98%) of 99 college students in a health class (37% male and 63% female; average age 24 years) reported experiencing stress, pain and discomfort. Stress-related conditions included arthritis, bruxism and TMJ, migraines, gastrointestinal discomfort (ulcerative colitis and acid reflux), tension headaches, and other body pains. Intervention Effect of a stress management program as part of a college class. 92 of 99 students participated in a six-week program as part of an upper division university class that included didactic discussion of the physiology of stress and holistic health concepts. Students were asked to practice sequentially the following practice multiple items during the day: awareness of stress, modified progressive relaxation, imagery for relaxation, slow diaphragmatic breathing, positive reframing/self-talk, gratitude visit, hand-warming and Quieting response. Results After the six week intervention, symptoms improved or disappeared (e.g. median 5.8 on a scale from 0=no change to 10 totally disappeared). Symptoms that decreased most were stress/tension, anxiety, physical pain, insomnia, breathing difficulty, and headaches. The stress management intervention supported students’ life-long learning skills to optimize health.