Brief summary of evidence supporting the efficacy of biofeedback for elimination disorders:

Numerous studies demonstrate levels 4 and 5 efficacy of biofeedback for urinary incontinence in females. It is better than no treatment (i.e., control) (Burgio et al., 1998; Burns et al., 1993; Dougherty et al., 2002; McDowell et al., 1999), better than or equal to other behavioral treatments (e.g., pelvic floor exercises) (Burns et al., 1993; Glavind, Nohr, Walter, 1996; Sherman, Davis, Wong, 1997; Sung, Hong, Choi Baik, Yoon, 2000; Weatherall, 1999; Wyman, Fantl, McClish, Bump, 1998) and better than drug (i.e., oxybutynin chloride) treatment (Burgio et al., 1998) in both young and old females. Combining drug and behavioral therapy in a stepped program can produce added benefit for those not satisfied with the outcome of single treatment (Burgio, Locher, Goode, 2000). Palsson et al (2004) have reviewed the evidence showing that biofeedback is efficacious for constipation, fecal incontinence, anal pain, and other functional anorectal disorders. They found that the average probability of successful treatment outcome for patients treated with biofeedback was 67% for functional fecal incontinence and 62% for constipation.

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