References

Detailed information on biofeedback augmented treatment of ADD/ADHD

A. Citations to the papers summarized in the "brief summary":

Alhambra, M.A., Fowler, T.P., & Alhambra, A.A. (1995). EEG biofeedback: A new treatment option for ADD/ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(2), 39-43.

Fuchs, T., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., Gruzelier, J.H., & Kaiser, J. (2003). Neurofeedback treatment for attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder in children: A comparison with methyphenidate. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 28(1), 1-12.

Kaiser, D.A., & Othmer, S. (2000). Effect of neurofeedback on variables of attention in a large multi-center trial. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(1), 5-15.

Linden, M., Habib, T, & Radojevic, V. (1996). A controlled study of the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of children with attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities. Biofeedback and Self Regulation, 21(1), 35-49.

Lubar, J.F., Swartwood, M.O., Swartwood, J.N., & O'Donnell, P.H. (1995). Evaluation of the effectiveness of EEG neurofeedback training for ADHD in a clinical setting as measured by changes in T.O.V.A. scores, behavioral ratings, and WISC-R performance. Biofeedback and Self Regulation, 20(1), 83-99.

Monastra, V.J., Monastra, D.M., & George, S. (2002). The effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 27(4), 231-249.

Rossiter, T.R., & La Vaque, T.J. (1995). A comparison of EEG biofeedback and psychostimulants in treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(1), 48-59.

Abstracts

Applied Psychophysiology Biofeedback. 2003 Mar;28(1):1-12.

Neurofeedback treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: a comparison with methylphenidate.

Neurofeedback treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: a comparison with methylphenidate.

Fuchs T, Birbaumer N, Lutzenberger W, Gruzelier JH, Kaiser J.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Gartenstrasse 29 72074 Tubingen, Germany.

Clinical trials have suggested that neurofeedback may be efficient in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We compared the effects of a 3-month electroencephalographic feedback program providing reinforcement contingent on the production of cortical sensorimotor rhythm (12-15 Hz) and betal activity (15-18 Hz) with stimulant medication. Participants were N = 34 children aged 8-12 years, 22 of which were assigned to the neurofeedback group and 12 to the methylphenidate group according to their parents' preference. Both neurofeedback and methylphenidate were associated with improvements on all subscales of the Test of Variables of Attention, and on the speed and accuracy measures of the d2 Attention Endurance Test. Furthermore, behaviors related to the disorder were rated as significantly reduced in both groups by both teachers and parents on the IOWA-Conners Behavior Rating Scale. These findings suggest that neurofeedback was efficient in improving some of the behavioral concomitants of ADHD in children whose parents favored a nonpharmacological treatment.

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